'Stuka' or 'Sturzkampfflugzeug' was the general German terminology for dive-bombers, but the Ju 87 with its inverted gull wing, and fixed-undercarriage was the most famous and feared of all. The Ju 87 was ugly, sturdy, accurate, but very vulnerable to enemy fighters; it's use demanded air superiority. But its effectiviness in destroying fortifications or ships, or just scaring people, was undoubted. On the eastern front the last Ju 87 versions were employed as anti-tank aircraft with underwing 37mm guns. Over 5700 Stuka's built.
Berta (B) - The Berta evolved in an attempt to solve the problems
discovered in the disappointing performance of the Anton. The primary
difference was the installation of the Junkers Jumo 211 A engine, which was
rated at 1,100hp. This gave the Ju 87B the necessary power to be a truly
effective dive-bomber. The cowling was redesigned to allow for this
installation and included the shifting of several support systems and a
larger, rounder radiator bath. Another feature that was a completely redesigned
of the landing struts. Gone were the ungainly trousers and in there place
were much more aerodynamically efficient spats. Also introduced was an
automatic pull-out device to prevent pilots that blacked out during a
being rudely awakened by an untimely impact into the terrain.
Five Ju 87B-1's flew with the Condor Legion and completely eclipsed the Antons
performance, thus securing for itself a place in the RLM's tight production schedule.
The Berta was developed into several different versions including the Trop version used by the Afrika Corps and the long ranged R version that was equipped with "strap-on" fuel tanks. The Berta served with distinction in the Polish invasion but revealed severe vulnerabilities a year later during the Battle of Britain, forcing them to be withdrawn to theatres where the Luftwaffe enjoyed some sort of air superiority. The Berta served throughout the war, mainly on the Eastern front and with various airforces, including the Slovakian, Romanian, Hungarian and Italy's Regia Aeronautica.
The Berta was also used as the basis for the C variant which was being developed as a carrier based dive bomber. The C variant was cancelled when it was realized that the Berta's airframe was obsolete.
(C) - The C model was developed for use on Germany's planned aircraft carrier, the Graf Zepplin. The main differences from the B model was the inclusion of a tail hook, folding wings and jettisonable landing gear for ditching at sea.
Dora (D) - With the development of new attack aircraft proceeding slowly, it was decided to put a improved version of the successful Ju 87 into production, thus the Dora was born. The Dora's were without a doubt the prevailing type later in the war and a dozen versions were produced or planned. Most versions incorporated mainly engine, armament and armor changes but several version stand out. The D-3 was at one time modified to carry two personel pods attatched to the upper wings. These parachute delivered pods were, if successful, to be used for the delivery of clandestine agents. The D-4 was modified to carry torpedoes. A D-1 was modified and redesignated a Ju 87E, a ill-fated attempt to breath life into the doomed carrier based dive bomber project. D-7 and D-8 versions were modified for night harrassment dutied. The single most successful version was the Gustav, detailed below.
Gustav (G) - In 1943 the first G-1's entered service (these being converted from D-3's). The G-1 was designed for one purpose only, to kill tanks (in a way, along with the Il-2 Stormavik, the ancestor of the A-10 Warthog). To accomplish this mission, the Gustav was equipped with two 37mm Flak 18 cannons. The G-1, and later the G-2 (converted from the long wingspan D-5) proved to be highly successful in "tankbusting", soon earning nicknames like 'Kanonenvogel' (Cannonbird) and 'Panzerknacker' (tank cracker). Most Gustavs were used on the Eastern front but could be found on the Western front as well by the end of the war.
Engine: Single Engine All Models
Ju 87A-2 - 680 hp Jumo 210 Da with a two-stage supercharger
Ju 87B-1 - 1,100 hp Jumo 211 A
Ju 87B-2 - 1,200 hp Jumo 211 Da 12 Cylinder liquid-cooled inverted Vee
Ju 87R-1 - Same powerplant as Ju 87B-1
Ju 87R-2, R-3 - Same powerplant as Ju 87B-2
Ju 87C - 1,100 hp Jumo 211 A
Ju 87D-1 to D5, G, H - 1,400 hp Jumo 211 J 12 Cylinder liquid-cooled inverted vee
Ju 87D-7 & D-8 - 1,500 hp Jumo 211 P 12 Cylinder liquid-cooled inverted vee
Ju 87A-2 - One 7.92mm MG 15 manually aimed in rear cockpit
Ju 87B series, R series, C - Two 7.92mm Rheinmetall MG 17 machine guns in wings, One 7.92mm MG 15 manually aimed in rear cockpit
Ju 87D-1 to D-3, D-7 - Two 7.92mm Rheinmetall MG 17 machine guns in wings, one 7.92mm MG 81Z twin machine guns manually aimed in rear cockpit
Ju 87D-4 - Two underwing WB81 weapon containers each housing six MG 81 guns.
Ju 87D-5, D-8 - Two 20mm MG 151/20 cannon in wings, one 7.92mm MG 81Z twin machine guns manually aimed in rear cockpit Ju 87G - Two 37mm Flak 18 Bord Kannone (12 rounds of ammo carried per gun)
Ju 87H - None (Used for training)
Ju 87A - Single 250kg bomb
Ju 87B, C - One 250kg bomb on the centerline trapeze and two 50kg bombs on each wing
Ju 87D - Various loads up to a maximum 3,968 lbs
Ju 87D-4 - One 1,687lb LT F5b Torpedo or loads of similar weight.
Ju 87G - None
|Ju 87A||Ju 87B||Ju 87D||Ju 87G|
|Production||1936-1938||1938-1941||1941-1944||refitted Ju 87D|
|Role||ground attack||ground attack||ground attack||anti-tank|
|Length||10.8 m||11.1 m||11.1 m||11.1 m|
|Wingspan||13.8 m||13.8 m||13.8 m||13.8 m|
|Height||3.9 m||3.9 m||3.9 m||3.9 m|
|Wing area||31.90 m²||31.90 m²||31.90 m²||31.90 m²|
|Empty weight||2273 kg||2760 kg||2810 kg||3600 kg|
|Maximum weight||3324 kg||4400 kg||5720 kg||5100 kg|
|Engine||Junkers Jumo 210D||Junkers Jumo 211D||Junkers Jumo 211J||Junkers Jumo 211J|
|Maximum Power||720 hp||1200 hp||1410 hp||1410 hp|
|Maximum Power||530 kW||883 kW||1037 kW||1037 kW|
|Maximum speed||310 km/h||340 km/h||354 km/h||344 km/h|
|Dive speed||550 km/h||600 km/h||600 km/h|
|Range with bombs||800 km||600 km||1165 km||1000 km|
|Ceiling||9430 m||8100 m||9000 m||7500 m|
|Climb||3000 m in 8.8 min||3000 m in 14 min||3000 m in 13.6 min|
|Forward guns||1×7.92 mm MG 17||2×7.92 mm MG 17||2×7.92 mm MG 17||2×7.92 mm MG 17|
2×37 mm BK 37
|Rear guns||1×7.92 mm MG 15||1×7.92 mm MG 15||1×7.92 mm MG 81Z|
(twin MG 81)
|1×7.92 mm MG 81Z|
(twin MG 81)
|Maximum bombs||250 kg||500 kg||1800 kg||none|
|Typical bombs||1×250 kg||1×250 kg|
+ 4×50 kg
+ 4×50 kg